REMEMBER: Even though you are
using numeric data, your subject is ALWAYS conceptual
The first step in statistical research is translating your subject into appropriate
- Create an "operational definition,"
which means to define your topic using measureable information
- The data chosen to support your operational definition becomes an "indicator"
for your topic
EXAMPLE: The subject of your
study is "intelligence"
- Indicator = scores on an IQ test
- Operational Definition of "Intelligence" = Performance on an IQ
The example given would be criticized as lacking construct validity. Construct
validity means that the operational definition
appropriately reflects the concept.
IQ Tests have been criticized for not being an accurate reflection of the concept
"intelligence." Critics argue that:
- IQ tests only measure certain types of intelligence
- IQ tests measure cultural knowledge of the dominant culture rather than